Types of asthma - Allergic asthma - Nocturnal asthma - Effort-induced asthma - Occupational asthma
Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system, characterized by periodic choking attacks of various origins. As a rule, the following manifest during the period of respiratory failure: shortness of breath, wheezing, and cough with sputum. The onset of the disease is often associated with allergens. Without treatment, attacks become more frequent, and complications are possible, up to a fatal outcome.
In humans, asthma can occur at any age, regardless of gender. It can be a transformation of a child form into the adult one, return after a long break or occur already in adulthood under the influence of triggers.
The treatment of the pathology is largely determined by the cause of its occurrence, so we will further consider the most common types of asthma.
This is the most common type, which according to various sources manifests in up to 80% of patients with this disease. Body contact with an allergen for a certain time causes an immune response. As a result, the lumen of the airways narrows and it becomes difficult to breathe.
One of the factors causing this type of asthma is allergic rhinitis (a chronic allergic disease). It causes inflammation of the mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. Such patients are more likely to have hypersensitivity to certain substances (potential allergens), which trigger an immune response and exacerbation of allergic symptoms of asthma. Modern medications can quickly stop such unpleasant symptoms, as lacrimation, persistent runny nose, constant sneezing, coughing, etc. Also, the occurrence of allergic asthma is promoted by a genetic predisposition.
Asthma is caused not only by allergens. Sometimes, the response of the immune system is not associated with them. The respiratory muscles during a non-allergic asthma also contract, making breathing more difficult, but this occurs due to hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract itself. Here are the main causes of non-allergic asthma:
· respiratory infections;
· too cold or dry air;
· physical loads;
· smell of smoking nearby;
· permanent stress, etc.
Let's have a detailed review of the most common types of non-allergic asthma.
Bronchoconstriction – this is how the scientific community calls asthma caused by physical activity. The symptoms include shortness of breath and wheezing. These are especially noticeable when exercising in cold weather. As a rule, the first symptoms appear in a couple of minutes after the start of a workout and last 15-20 minutes after that. The main symptom is shortness of breath, which can further turn into cough with whistles.
The symptoms of exercise-induced asthma can occur even in completely healthy people, for example, in professional athletes during the intense preparation for competitions. Patients with a pronounced clinical picture of the disease may be recommended to use an inhaler (bronchodilator) before starting the training to avoid some unpleasant symptoms.
This type of asthma is commonly spread throughout the world. The symptoms usually occur during sleep, which is determined by the regimen of sleep and rest. This is shortness of breath (sometimes with whistles) and coughing.
Nocturnal asthma is more dangerous, as it occurs in an almost unconscious state and leads to death more often than other types do. The reason for this has not yet been clarified. However, experts believe that high mortality is associated with a more pronounced effect of the provoking factor at night time, for example:
· Hypothermia of the respiratory tract;
· Hormonal fluctuations;
· Horizontal position of the body (acid reflux occurs).
If a person with a genetic predisposition to asthma suffers from sinusitis for a long time and does not treat it, he may have postnasal numbness and coughing attacks during sleep.
If you have been diagnosed with asthma, the symptoms of which during exacerbation periods manifest mainly in the evening and at night, you should definitely inform your doctor about it. A timely and high-quality treatment allows controlling the manifestations of asthma and significantly improve the quality of sleep.
This type of disease received its name because its triggers are directly related to the professional activity. This means that the symptoms of this type of asthma appear at work only. Usually, people complain about having runny nose, nasal stuffiness, lachrymation, sneezing, shortness of breath, and even cough.
There is a list of occupations, specialists in which are at risk of occupational asthma. These are employees of chemical, metallurgical and bakery industries, woodworking and textile industries, agriculture (working with animals and feed). Hairdressers, artists, nurses are also at risk.