Diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma (BA) is one of the most common respiratory diseases. Asthma is a non-contagious inflammatory disease. The pathology is characterized by a short inhale and long loud exhale (wheezing, moist cough). Lack of early treatment can lower significantly your life quality. In case of any complications, it can lead to fatal outcome.
Symptoms and causes of disease
It is considered, that bronchial asthma has the so-called premonitory symptoms that can cause an acute respiratory disturbance. Usually, they manifest as runny nose, frequent and abundant sneezing, and other symptoms. These symptoms are especially noticeable in patients, who suffer from bacterial asthma.
After the first symptoms, the patients can have a sudden respiratory disturbance. Here is what can happen:
Chest tightness, shortness of breath
Short inhale and a long exhale with whistling or wheezing sound (irregular breath)
Moist cough with difficult sputum production
The patient has to get into a forced position to ease his condition
During the reverse development of his condition, patient can notice an easier expectoration, wheezing becomes less noticeable and the chocking disappears.
Bronchial asthma can develop in any person regardless of his sex and age. The most common provocative factors are exogenic allergens, some microorganisms and their waste products. A hypersensitivity to some irritants of the mucosal respiratory system can be caused by continuous work in an unhealthy work environment, work in stores with household chemicals, perfumes, and so on.
A pulmonologist can diagnose bronchial asthma based on patient’s complaints and specific symptoms. Various laboratory studies are held to define the severity of the disease and its causes:
· Peakflowmetry. This diagnostic method evaluates the ability of a forced expiration of the maximum air volume from the lungs at a peak speed using a peakflowmeter.
· Spirography. This method of investigation helps defining the level of bronchial obstruction and bronchodilator reversibility. To do this, the doctor creates the conditions for forced expiration using bronchodilators.
· General blood analysis. A slight increase of the ESR is observed during an exacerbation of the disease. An analysis of the gas composition of the blood is performed during an attack in order to evaluate the severity of respiratory failure.
· Microscopic examination of sputum. The microscopy analysis of sputum allows identifying an excess in the amount of eosinophils (a special type of white blood cells that are involved in the development of allergic reactions and protect the human body from parasites), crystals formed after their destruction, Kurshman spirals and other characteristic elements.
An auxiliary diagnostics can include a study of the immune status, a test with allergens, bronchoscopy, and X-ray of the lungs. To find out the nature of allergens and monitor the effectiveness of treatment, a laboratory blood test is made.
Bronchial asthma treatment
With timely treatment, the disease can be treated successfully, which mostly results in a persistent and long-term remission.
Despite the frequency and severity of symptoms, bronchial asthma is a chronic disease. It means that the therapy mainly aims avoidance of contacts with possible allergens and keeping to a special diet.
Medicines of special pharma-groups are prescribed to control asthma attacks, namely:
· beta-adrenergic agonists (aerosol). They help to quickly increase bronchial lumen and improve sputum discharge. The recommended dose is selected individually for each patient.
· m-anticholinergics (aerosol). These also help to cope with the attack, restoring normal breathing.